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Breguet 697

Breguet 697



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Breguet 697

The Breguet 697 was the designation given to a standard Br 691 attack bomber given more powerful engines in an attempt to prove that the aircraft could be used as a heavy fighter. The Br 691 had after all been developed from the earlier Br 690, which had been designed as a fighter. The single Br 697 was produced by fitting the seventeenth Br 691 with two 1,070hp Gnôme & Rhône 14N 48.49 radial engines. It made its maiden flight on 19 October 1939 and was successful enough to convince the French Air Ministry to order two prototype fighters under the designation Breguet 700 C2.


Page 697

THE OPPOSING FORCES IN THE CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS.

ARTILLERY, Maj. Allen C. Waterhouse, Maj. Frederick Welker : C, 1st Mich., Lieut. William W . Hyzer 1st Minn., Capt. William Z. Clayton 15th Ohio, Lieut. Lyman Bailey, Capt. James Burdick. UNASSIGNED: 9th Ill. (mounted), Lieut.-Col. Samuel T. Hughes.

LEFT WING (Army of Georgia), Maj.-Gen. Henry W. Slocum.

Pontoniers: 58th Ind., Maj. William A. Downey.

FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Brig.-Gen. Jefferson C. Davis.

FIRST DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. William P. Carlin, Col. George P. Buell, Brig.-Gen. Charles C. Walcutt.

First Brigade, Col. Harrison C. Hobart: 104th Ill., Maj. John H. Widmer 42d Ind., Maj. Gideon R. Kellams 88th Ind., Lieut.-Col. Cyrus E. Briant, Capt. William N. Voris, Maj. Lewis J. Blair 33d Ohio, Capt. Joseph Hinson 94th Ohio, Maj. William H. Snider 21st Wis., Lieut.-Col. Michael H. Fitch, Maj. Charles II, Walker, Lieut.-Col. Michael H. Fitch. Second Brigade, Col. George P. Buell, Lieut.-Col. Michael H. Fitch, Col. George P. Buell: 13th Mich., Col. Joshua B. Culver, Maj. Willard G. Eaton, Capt. Silas A. Yerkes 21st Mich., Capt. Arthur C. Prince, Lieut.-Col. Loomis K. Bishop 69th Ohio, Capt. Jacob J. Rarick, Lieut. Samuel P. Murray, Lieut.-Col. Joseph H. Brigham. Third Brigade, Lieut,-Col. David Miles, Lieut.-Col. Arno Henry A. Hambright: 38th Ind., Capt. James H. Low, Capt. David H. Patton 21st Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Arnold McMahan, Capt. Samuel F. Cheney, Lieut.-Col. Arnold McMahan 74th Ohio, Maj. Robert P. Findley 79th Pa., Maj. Michael H. Locker, Capt. John S. McBride.

SECOND DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. James D. Morgan.

Provost Guard : B, 110th Ill., Capt. William R. Hester.

First Brigade, Brig.-Gen. William Vandever: 16th Ill., Capt. Eben White, Capt. Hernan Lund 60th Ill., Lieut-.Col. George W. Evans, Maj. James H. McDonald 10th Mich., Col. Charles M. Lum, Capt William H. Dunphy 14th Mich., Lieut.-Col. George W. Grummond 17th N. Y., Lieut.-Col. James Lake, Maj. Alexander S. Marshall.

Second Brigade, Lieut.-Col. John S. Pearce, Brig.-Gen. John G. Mitchell: 34th Ill., Capt. Peter F. Walker, Lieut.-Col. Peter Ege 78th Ill., Lieut.-Col. Maris R. Vernon 98th Ohio, Capt. .Tames R. McLaughlin, Lieut-.Col. John S. Pearce, Maj. David E. Roatch 108th Ohio, Maj. Frederick Beck, Lieut.-Col. Joseph Good 113th Ohio, Capt. Toland Jones, Capt, Otway Watson 121st Ohio, Maj. Aaron B. Robinson. Third Brigade, Col. Benjamin D. Fearing, Lieut.-Col. James W. Langley: 85th III., Capt. James R. Griffith 86th Ill., Lieut.-Col. Allen L. Fahnestoek 110th Ill. (A, 24th 111., attached), Lieut.-Col. E. Hibbard Topping 125th Ill., Lieut.-Col. James W. Langley, Capt. George II'. Cook 22d Ind., Capt. William H. Snodgrass 37th Ind, (1 co.), Lieut. Socrates Carver 52d Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Charles W. Clancy, Maj. James T. Holmes.

THIRD DIVISION, Big.-Gen. Absalom Baird.

First Brigade, Col. Morton C. Hunter: 82d Ind., Lieut-.Col. John M. Matheny 23d Mo. (4 e.o's), Maj. John H. Jolly 11th Ohio (detachment), Capt. Francis H. Loring 17th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Benjamin H. Showers 31st Ohio, Capt. Michael Stone, Capt. Eli Wilkin 89th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. William H. Glenn 92d Ohio, Lieut.-Col. John C. Morrow. Second. Brigade, Lieut.-Col, Thomas Doan, Brig .-Gen. Newell Gleason: 75th Ind., Maj. Cyrus J. McCole, Lieut.-Col. William O'Brien 87th Ind., Maj. Richard C. Sabin, Lieut.-Col. Edwin P. Hammond 101st Ind., Maj. George W. Steele, Lieut.-Col. Thomas Doan 2d Minn., Lieut.-Col. Judson W. Bishop 105th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. George T. Perkins. Third Brigade, Col. George P. Este, Lieut.-Col. Hubbard K. Milward, Brig.-Gen. George S. Greene: 74th Ind., Lieut.-Col. Thomas Morgan 18th Ky., Lieut.-Col. Hubbard K. Milward, Maj. John J. Hall, Lieut.-Col. H. K. Milward 14th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Albert Moore 38th Ohio, Capt. Charles Di. Gilbert.

ARTILLERY, Maj. Charles Houghtaling : C, 1st Ill., Lieut. Joseph R. Channel, Lieut. Palmer F. Scovel I, 2d Ill., Lieut Judson Rich 19th Ind., Lieut. Samuel D. Webb, Lieut. Clinton Keeler 5th Wis., Capt. John McKnight, Lieut. Elijah Booth, Jr.

TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Brig.-Gen. Alpheus. S. Williams, Maj.-Gen. Joseph A. Mower.

FIRST DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel J. Jackson, Brig-.Gen. Alpheus S. Williams.

First Brigade, Col. James L. Selfridge: 5th Conn ., Lieut.-Col. Henry W. Daboll 123d N. Y., Col. James C. Rogers 141st N. Y ., Capt. William Merrell, Lieut.-Col. Andrew J. McNett 46th Pa., Maj. Patrick Griffith. Second Brigade, Col. William Hawley: 2d Mass., Lieut,-Col. Charles F. Morse, Capt. Robert B. Brown, Capt. Edward A. Phalen 13th N. J., Maj. Frederick H. Harris, Capt. John H. Arey 107th N. Y., Col. Nirom M. Crane 150th N. Y., Lieut.-Col. Alfred B. Smith 3d Wis., Lieut.-Col. George W. Stevenson. Third Brigade, Brig.-Gen. James S. Robinson : 82d III., Maj. Ferdinand H. Rolshausen, Lieut.-Col. Edward S. Salomon 101st Ill., Lieut.-Col. John B. Le Sage 143d N. Y., Lieut.-Col. Hezekiah Watkins, Capt. Edward H. Pinny, Col. Horace Boughton 61st Ohio, Capt. John Garrett 82d Ohio, Lieut.-Col. David Thomson, Maj. James S. Crall 31st Wis., Col. Francis H. West.

SECOND DIVISION, Brig.-Gen John W. Geary.

First Brigade, Col. Ario Pardee, Jr., Col. George W. Mindil: 5th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Robert Kirkup 29th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Jonas Schoonover 66th Ohio, Lieut-.Col. Eugene .Powell, Capt. Theodoric G. Keller 28th Pa., Col. John Flynn, Lieut.-Col. James Fitzpatrick 147th Pa., Lieut.-Col. John Craig. Second Brigade, Col. George W. Mindil, Col. Patrick H. Jones : 33d N. J., Lieut: Col. Enos Fourat, Col. George W. Mindil, Maj. Nathaniel K. Bray 119th N. Y., Col. John T. Lockman 134th N. Y., Capt. Perry E. McMaster, Lieut.-Col. Allan H. Jackson 154th N. Y., Col. Patrick H. Jones, Lieut.-Col. Lewis D. Warner 73d Pa., Capt. Samuel D. Miller, Maj. Christian H. Goebel 109th Pa., Capt. William Geary. Third Brigade, Col. Henry A. Barnum : 60th N. Y., Capt. Abner B. Shipman, Lieut -Col. Lester S. Willson 102d N. Y., Lieut.-Col. Harvey S. Chatfield, Maj. Oscar J. Spaulding 187th N. Y ., Maj. Milo B. Eldridge, Lieut.-Col. Koert S. Van Voorhis 149th N. Y., Capt. Henry N. Burhans, Lieut.-Col. Nicholas Grumbach 29th Pa., Lieut.-Col. George E. Johnson, Col. Samuel M. Zulich 111th Pa., Capt. William J. Alexander, Col. Thomas M. Walker.

THIRD DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. William T. Ward.

First Brigade, Col. Henry Case, Col. Benjamin Harrison : 102d Ill., Maj. Hiland H. Clay, Col. Franklin C. Smith 105th Ill., Lieut.-Col. Everell F. Dutton 129th Ill., Lieut.-Col. Thomas H. Flynn, Col. Henry Case 70th Ind., Maj. Zachariah S. Ragan, Lieut: Col. Samuel Merrill 79th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Azariah W. Doan. Second Brigade, Col. Daniel Dustin : 33d Ind., Lieut: Col. James E. Burton 85th Ind., Lieut.-Col. Alexander B. Crane 19th Mich., Maj. David Anderson 22d Wis., Capt. Darwin R. May, Capt. George H. Brown, Lieut.-Col. Edward Bloodgood. Third. Brigade, Col. William Cogswell : 20th Conn., Lieut.-Col. Philo B. Buckingham 33d Mass., Lieut.-Col. Elisha Doane 136th N. Y., Maj. Henry L. Arnold, Capt. George H. Eldridge, Col. James Wood, Jr. ,55th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Edwin H. Powers, Maj. Charles P. Wickham 73d Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Samuel H. Hurst, Maj. Thomas W. Higgins 26th Wis., Lieut.-Col. Frederick C. Winkler, Maj. Francis Lackner.

ARTILLERY, Maj. John A. Reynolds, Capt. Charles E. Winegar: I, 1st N. Y., Capt. Charles E. Winegar, Lieut. Warren L. Scott M, 1st N. Y., Lieut. Edward P. Newkirk C, 1st Ohio, Lieut. Jerome B. Stephens E, Pa,, Capt. Thomas S. Sloan.

THIRD DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick.

First Brigade, Col. Thomas J. Jordan : 3d Ind. (batt'n), Capt. Charles U. Patton 8th Ind., Lieut.-Col. Fielder A. Jones 2d Ky., Maj. Owen Star 3d Ky ., Lieut.-Col 9th Pa., Lieut.-Col. David H. Kimmel.

Second Brigade, Col. Smith D. Atkins : 92d Ill. (mounted), Lieut.-Col. Matthew Van Buskirk 9th Mich., Col. George S. Acker 9th Ohio, Col. William D. Hamilton 10th Ohio, Col. Thomas L. Sanderson McLaughlin's Ohio Squadron, Capt. John Dalzell. Third Brigade, Col. George E. Spencer, Col. Michael Kerwin, Col. Thomas


Related Replica Watches


Breguet 697 - History

Introduction: Sitting Bull
Digital History ID 697

Document: Even in death he was the symbol of resistance to white authority. His name was Sitting Bull, and he was a chief and holy man of the Hunkpapa people, one of the tribes forming the Teton Sioux. During the 1840s and 1850s, his people engaged in intertribal warfare with the Shoshoni, Assiniboin, and Crow as each group sought to expand its hunting grounds. But in 1863 and 1864, federal troops sought to assert control over the Sioux following an uprising in Minnesota, and Sitting Bull participated in repeated clashes with these forces.

After some of the Teton Sioux made peace with the whites in 1868 in exchange for a reservation in the Black Hills, Sitting Bull was selected leader of those determined to maintain Sioux independence. To resist federal efforts to open the Black Hills to miners, he created a coalition of Plains tribes, and in the winter of 1875 repulsed an American force of 1,000 soldiers led by General George Crook. Ten days later, his warriors overwhelmed George Armstrong Custer and his men at the Battle of the Little Big Horn. Fearing federal retaliation, the Indian alliance broke into bands, and Sitting Bull led his people into Canada. Facing starvation, however, Sitting Bull surrendered in 1881. He traveled with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in 1885, then returned to his reservation. There, he opposed land sales--angering many whites.

Convinced that he was responsible for the spread of a religious revitalization movement, known as the Ghost Dance, Major James McLaughlin ordered Sitting Bull arrested. Early in the morning of December 15, 1890, during the arrest, gunfire erupted. Sitting Bull, his seventeen-year-old son, six of his followers, and six Indian police officers died.


Breguet Watch Company History

For more than two centuries, numerous references in French and other literature have borne witness to the scope and depth of Breguet's international influence. Breguet has become such an intrinsic part of European culture that his name inevitably springs to mind when one is seeking to depict the aristocracy, the bourgeoisie, or simply a luxurious, refined environment characterized by high standards. What greater proof of his reputation -- and what more truly disinterested and free publicity -- could one imagine, than an allusion to Breguet in the Comédie Humaine by Balzac, or in works by Alexandre Dumas, Stendhal, Jules Verne, or even the great Pushkin….Other less universally known authors such as Mérimée, Siraudin or the Russians Karamzin and Kuprin also celebrate the father of modern watchmaking, while numerous works in popular literature intended for the education of youth give Breguet as an example, often colorful and embroidered biographies. There were even exercise books bearing Breguet's effigy!

Breguet was founded in 1775 by Abraham-Louis Breguet, following his marriage to the daughter of a prosperous French bourgeois her dowry provided the "financing" which allowed him to open his own workshop. The connections Breguet had made with scholarly people during his apprenticeship as a watchmaker and as a student of mathematics soon paid off with spectacular results. Following his introduction to the court, whereupon Queen Marie-Antoinette is said to have grown fascinated by Breguet's unique self-winding watch, Louis XVI bought several watches. He gave one of them to the mariner Bougainville, who was just organizing his great expedition to the North Pole. Two requirements for the further development of the workshop had been achieved: Breguet found access to the powerful and wealthy aristocracy, and proved himself to be a technical genius. In short order, Breguet perfected the self-winding movement invented by Perrelet invented shock resistance for balance bearings (prior to this, most pocket watches were badly damaged if they fell to the ground) and developed la repetition, a repeating pocket watch that chimed on demand (which was necessary to tell time in the dark).

Perhaps the invention Breguet is most famous for is the tourbillon. Even with today's advanced technology, the tourbillon can only be built by the most skilled watchmakers. Breguet began with the theory that the gravity of a pocket watch (that was almost always carried vertically) led to deviations in timekeeping. He wanted to rule out all differences of position with the tourbillon. Consequently, he developed a small "clock within a clock", meaning that the balance and escapement turned on a common axle within the movement, for example, once a minute. This eliminated most deviations caused by differences in position and allowed many watches to attain chronometer-like accuracy. These inventions of Breguet ensured the success of his firm under the rule of two Bourbon kings, three governments of the First Republic and the reign of Napoleon. In fact, Napoleon was one of Breguet's most loyal customers.

An amusing story is told in which Napoleon, while in the heat of battle, wanted to see the time on his pocket watch right away, without sacrificing the benefits of the cover. So, right then and there, Napoleon unceremoniously cut a small viewing hole in the front cover. This afforded him an unobstructed view of the face and hands! And so the half-hunter was born. No matter who was in power in Europe, he wore a Breguet. The master, who built the first watches with perpetual calendar and moonphase indication as early as 1795, was not only a technical visionary, but a pioneer in the business world as well. Aside from considering (and executing) special requests from royalty and wealthy patrons, Breguet also cased his movements in gold and silver, created lavish carrying cases of Morocco leather, provided spare parts, and was perhaps the first watchmaker to encounter counterfeit examples of his work.

To combat this problem, Breguet and engraver Jean Pierre Droz invented the "secret signature" on the dial. An impossibly small marking, the signature could be only be read by holding the watch to a light source and looking through a loupe. To further ensure authenticity, all watches that left the factory were given a serial number and registered in thick books, so that authenticity could always be verified. (And in fact, these books are still kept as part of Breguet's archives. Thus, for a small fee, one can learn the date of sale, original sales price and original purchaser of even the most ancient timepieces!) Unfortunately, Breguet was ultimately forced to seek refuge in Switzerland beginning in 1807. Many timepieces from this time period that are signed "Breguet et Fils" were actually built by other watchmakers and merely retailed by the Master. As a result, many collectors consider the only "true" Breguets to be the watches sold prior to Breguet's exile from France.

Following Breguet's death, the company changed hands several times. The "modern" chapter of the Breguet saga begins in 1970, five years prior to its 200th anniversary, when the company was bought by Parisian jewelers Jacques and Pierre Chaumet. By restoring the prestige and exclusivity associated with Breguet watches, the Chaumet brothers accomplished a minor miracle. Modern Breguet watches, which are built by hand by the most talented Swiss watchmakers, boast hand-engraved ("guilloche") silver dials, exquisitely finished cases with reeded edges, and of course, the famous Breguet signature. Although Breguet also offers such sporty, casual models as the "Transatlantique" and "Marine" lines, they are best known for their elegant dress watches, many of which sell for five figures and up. In sum, while a Breguet may not be in everyone's price range, collectors with the means to acquire one of these mechanical masterpieces should not hesitate. The history, romance, high quality, and exclusivity of this brand ensure that it will be a worthwhile investment indeed.


W ristwatches have a rich history in aviation, and by the time World War II started (1939), soldiers and aviators used wristwatches – more than pocket watches – to calculate everything from flight time to artillery distances to longitude to troop movements.

B-uhr, Navitimer & GMT Master

In (1941), Lange & Sohne, who was the primary supplier of wristwatches to German combat pilots, could not deliver enough watches to fill the demand. So, the German government demanded five manufacturers to build B-uhr (“Beobachtungs-uhr” or “Pilot”) watches which were anti-magnetic, highly legible, and able to be chronometer certified. The five companies that produced the original pilot watches are IWC, Lange & Söhne, Laco, Wempe, and Stowa.

1911 Breguet biplane airplane Type R.U1 No.40. located at the Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris

Over a decade later, Breitling launched the Navitimer in (1952), with the now-famous slide rule bezel designed for pilots to make crucial in air navigational calculations.

By (1954), at a time when long-haul transatlantic flights were becoming more prevalent, Rolex launched the GMT Master designed in collaboration with Pan AM Airways. The key feature of the watch was that the wearer could easily track different time zones simultaneously.

Breguet developed its first prototype chronograph Type 20 wristwatches in the 1950s. And in (1958) the French Aéronavale, which was the naval air arm of the French Navy, commissioned Breguet to create a series of 500 numbered pieces, all with “BREGUET MARINE NATIONALE AERONAUTIQUE NAVALE” engraved on the solid caseback. Five other watchmakers were also commissioned to create Type 20 and Type 21 watches for use by French Navy pilots.

The five other brands were Mathey Tissot, Airain, Vixa, Auricoste, and Dodane (Auricoste and Dodane are the only two of these companies still in business).

Type 20 wristwatch chronograph, first-generation, 38 mm stainless steel case, black dial, 30-minute and 12-hour recorders, fly-back function, lever escapement. Sold on November 23, 1959 to Société Aérotechnique in Algiers (ref. 1775ALB.3495)

The Type 20 watches, similar to the aforementioned B-Uhr pilots’ watches commissioned by the German military, needed to meet some basic prerequisites, including a having a 38 mm diameter stainless steel case, a chronograph with “flyback” function, a rotating bezel engraved with a 12-hour scale, a power reserve of 35-hours or more, luminescent material on the hands and dial, and an accuracy of 8 seconds +/- per day.

Type XX Aéronavale

As mentioned above, Breguet is one of three brands out of six that is still in operation that was originally designated to create Type 20 and 21 chronographs.

Breguet still produces the modern, third-generation “Type XX” that pays homage to the vintage “Type 20.” Breguet also currently makes the Type XXI and Type XXII chronographs, which in contrast to the retro styling of the Type XX, has a contemporary design.

Breguet Type XX Aeronavale 3800

The third-generation Type XX, known as the Breguet Type XX Aéronavale Chronograph (ref. 3800ST/92/9W6) was launched in 1995 and is still sold today. It is powered by automatic caliber 582, based on Lemania caliber 1350, with a flyback module added on top. The movement beats at a modern rate of 4Hz and has a 48-hour power reserve.

(Editor’s note: Breguet owns all Lemania intellectual property and is headquartered in the original Lemania manufacture located in the heart of the famous Vallée de Joux watchmaking region.)

Breguet Type XX Ref.3800ST on the wrist

Compared to the Lemania caliber 1350, the components are decorated to a higher standard, with embellishments such as Geneva stripes on the rotor, circular graining on the mainplate, and straight-grained bridges and levers. While the finish is not comparable to what you would expect from an haute horology Breguet movement, there is none of the signature Breguet hand guilloché-work, which is found on every other Breguet collection, for example. Moreover, the chronograph is actuated using a cam and lever configuration, as opposed to a more premium column wheel and vertical clutch system.

Breguet Type XX Aeronavale 3800ST Chronograph

The Type XX is not strictly a professional watch, per se, but it has a 39 mm stainless steel case, a solid caseback, a flyback function, luminescent hands, and luminescent printed numerals, like the original (although the bezel has a 0-60 scale instead of a 12-hour scale, and the case is 1 mm larger).

Type 20 wristwatch chronograph, first-generation, 38 mm gold case, black dial with 30-minute recorder, fly-back function, lever escapement. Completed in 1955. Only three examples of this model were made in gold by Breguet (ref. 1775ALB.1780)

Breguet Museum Aviation collection

For reference, below is a selection of superb Type 20 timepieces, as well as a Type 11/1 aviation pocket watch, and a Breguet airplane gauge, that we shot in December 2016 at the permanent exhibit at the Breguet Museum, housed in the upper level at the Breguet Boutique at 6 Place Vendôme, Paris. There are of course numerous other Breguet treasures inside the museum which it is also worth noting is curated by Emmanuel Breguet, a seventh-generation direct descendant of Abraham-Louis Breguet.

Type 20 wristwatch chronograph, second-generation, 38 mm polished stainless steel case with black rotating bezel, fly-back function, black dial with 15-minute recorder, lever escapement. Sold in 1973 (ref. 1775ALB.21122) Breguet vintage Type 20 in 38 mm steel case with Tri-Compax dial, circa 1973, No. 21122 Breguet vintage Type 20 in 38 mm steel case with heavily patinated “tropical” dial Centre seconds watch, T.U. type, Marine Nationale Aéronautique Navale 0124A, 50 mm chromium plated case, 24-hours black dial, straight-line lever escapement. Sold on June 17, 1958, to the “Service Hydrographique de la Marine” (ref. 1775ALB.3732) Breguet Type 11/1 – Panel Instrument (ref. 1775ALB.24570) Louis Charles Breguet was the great-great-grandson of Abraham-Louis Breguet. He was not associated with Breguet watchmaking but fascinatingly, like his great-great-grandfather, A-L Breguet, he built machines that were ahead of their time. In 1907 he built a gyroplane, which was a forerunner to the helicopter. And in 1911, built the plane shown below, as well as numerous planes for the French military.

Final Thoughts

In 1999, the Swatch Group bought Breguet, which included the Lemania manufacture – and has significantly modernized the factory since that time – yet surprisingly, the movement powering the Type XX has remained the same for more than two decades.

Which brings me to my concluding thoughts.

The current third-generation Type XX is a great watch that meets almost all of the original Type 20 specifications and is accessibly priced at $9500, considering the brand name.

However, I would genuinely love to see Breguet make a fourth-generation Type XX in a similar steel case, although preferably a bit thinner, fitted with a modern Breguet chronograph movement such as caliber 589F that beats at an incredibly high rate of 10Hz (72,000 vph), has a second time zone, and is currently used in the Type XXII. Or even just an updated Lemania caliber would probably do the trick.

The key element to a homage piece like this is to preserve what makes the older model look so good aesthetically. And in this case, I love the second generation Type 20s (two are shown above) with black rotating bezels – one with a bi-compax and the other tri-compax layout – which are the most attractive of the Type 20s, in my opinion. Make a re-edition of one of these and that would be perfection in my mind.

1911 Breguet biplane aeroplane Type R.U1 No.40 underneath

Posted by: Jason Pitsch

Jason Pitsch is the Founder of Professional Watches. He appreciates good design and engineering in everything from architecture to automobiles to cameras to clothing. Yet his focus for the past decade has remained consistent on covering just one: watchmaking.


Aurora’s 1/48 Scale Breguet 14 With Kit Release History

Built by The Société des Ateliers d’Aviation Louis Breguet, also known as Breguet Aviation, the Breguet 14 (often spelled as the Breguet XIV) is considered one of the most important French warplanes of WW1. Designed for reconnaissance and bombing roles, it was known for toughness and performance, thanks to Breguet Aviation internal structure of duralumin and steel, with a wood and fabric external construction. Powered by a Renault 12Fe water-cooled inline engine rated at 224 kW (300 hp), the Breguet 14 was fast (121 mph) and fairly maneuverable. It usually packed a fixed Vickers 7.7mm machine gun firing ahead, and single or twin 7.7mm Lewis Guns mounted on a scarf ring for the observer.

The Aéronautique Militaire used them from late 1916 thruogh the Armistice and into the early 1930’s! France sold and provided her allies with the type, with the American Expeditionary Force fielding sixteen squadrons of Bre.14’s. Some two dozen other countries used the Bre.14, and Nakajima of Japan produced a license-built version. The Bre.14 was large, with a wingspan of over 49 feet.

In 1956 Aurora began a series of WWI aircraft kits in 1/48 scale. They were best sellers, and Aurora continuously expanded the line up to the final two releases in 1963/64 – the Breguet 14 and Albatros C-III. The Aurora Breguet is impressive with its utilitarian, boxy, all-business aesthetics. Released originally as kit No. 141-98, the Breguet 14 came with a lithographed slick glued to the folded-frame box top – the ‘hardbox’ that was popular during this period. The famous aviation artist Jo Kotula did the box artwork.

Original issue still sealed Aurora Breguet 14 dated 1963

As prices rose, Aurora changed the price suffix on the kit number but everything else about the kit stayed the same. The next issue was 141-100 and it retained the same ‘hardbox’ style, artwork and logo. The third and final issue with this artwork and box was 141. Retailers had been putting pressure on the model companies to drop the ‘suggested price’ suffix from the part numbers and Aurora finally agreed. Since the kit sports the same artwork, the copyright date on the box is still 1963. Kits numbered 141 actually date from the later 1960s, and 141-100 from the mid 1960s.

In the early 1970s, Aurora attempted to make it’s existing models more accurate. The molds were cleaned up, raised decal lines were eliminated, details revised and sometimes fabric texture was added. The Breguet received this overhaul as did all of the WWI series. In this ‘square box’ series, Aurora also included the very popular vacuform diorama display base. Jo Kotula artwork was replaced by that of John Amendola.

Second release 1141-260 Aurora Breguet 14 circa 1970

Very near this time Aurora issued this kit in the USA from it’s subsidiary, K&B. In 1973, Aurora/K&B Canada issued the model in their ‘Collectors Series,’ as kit number 1141. Both of these issues shared the ‘square box’, display base and Amendola artwork.

This stocky Breguet 14 contains 37 parts molded in tan and black. This includes two ground crewmen, but curiously no flightcrew.

The molding is improved over earlier Aurora releases. I found no sinkholes nor flash, though ejector marks and seam lines abound. And the unfortunate raised areas for the decals…guess it seemed like a good idea at the time.

Parts layout for an early issue Aurora Breguet 14 (click on any photo to enlarge)

Parts layout for an early issue Aurora Breguet 14 (click on any photo to enlarge)

Many parts are over scale. There is no interior detail other than the seat, stick, and instrument panel. The machine guns show a noble effort by the mold maker, but they are still toy-like by today’s standards.

Much of the detail is soft and simplified. Almost all of the control surface horns are molded on, and out of scale. The checker pattern below the rear gunner cockpit should be open for windows.

Neither the fuselage nor wings were textured to simulate fabric. The wingspan is over one foot, and a fuselage of 7.25 inches.

Painting, Decals and Instructions

The instructions are simple and nicely illustrated. It includes a photograph of the completed model. Aurora did not supply any rigging diagram.

Instructions for an early issue Aurora Breguet 14 (click on any photo to enlarge)

Painting instructions are basic. French standard G-4 camouflage was four or five colors in various patterns and makes for an attractive finish. Aurora’s own brand of glue and paints is the only products referenced.

The decals are over 40 years old and slightly yellowed. Markings for a single American Expeditionary Force aircraft are provided, Bre.14 B2 No. 4348, 96th Aero Squadron, aircraft No. 8.

Conclusion
Another great trip down memory lane. Even today this kit is sought for building and collecting. Some collectors enjoy building the kit as they did in the 1960s – straight from the box. But those who wish to build it to current standards, it is ripe for detailing. There are several aftermarket Vickers and Lewis guns available, as are seats, struts, and wheels. You can make an excellent model from it, as evidenced by the many examples online.

I only know of two other 1/48 Breguet 14s, one a multi-media by Hi-Tech, and the other a vacuform.

Highs
No sinkholes nor flash mar this model.

Lows
Much of the detail is soft and simplified, ejector marks and seam lines abound, and there are those unfortunate raised areas for the decals. Only basic interior detail occupies the yawning cockpit openings, the machine guns are toy-like by today’s standards.

Verdict
Boxstock or super-detailed, this Breguet 14 can be an eye catcher.


Mens Longines L3.697.4.06.6 Conquest Automatic Chrono 44.5mm Watch

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Use your Amazon Payments account information to check out.

Use your Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ripple/XRP, Ethereum & Litecoin account information to check out.

Receive a 2% discount with a bank-to-bank wire transfer on watches over $1,500.

All packages shipped via Prestige Time LLC are fully insured against loss, theft and damage during transit. All packages are shipped with an "Adult Signature" requirement prior to release by the FedEx driver. Before signing please inspect the package to ensure it has not been tampered with or damaged. View complete Shipping policies for US orders.

Domestic shipping fees (USA only):
FedEx Standard (3 business days delivery) FREE ($15.00 value)
FedEx 2nd Day (2 business days delivery) $25.00 ($40.00 value)
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Shipments to Alaska, PR and Hawaii: Orders shipped to Alaska, Puerto Rico and Hawaii will be charged a flat fee of $60 and are usually delivered within two to three business days from shipping.

All quoted prices and actual charges are in US Dollars.

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International shipping fees:
Package Value Canada Other Countries
up to $5,000 $60 $70 - $100
$5,000 - $8,000 $80 $100 - $150
$8,000 and up $100 $150+

All prices quoted are before your local taxes, duties, VAT, GST, PST or any other such charges. These fees will be assessed and charged separately when the watch clears customs in your country. These fees are the customer's responsibility.

U.S. CUSTOMERS:
  • We offer a 14 day return policy from the day of receipt.
  • Returns are subject to a 2% restocking fee (waived for an exchange of equal or close to equal value).
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Prestige Time specializes in the sale of authentic watches at discounted prices. We have been selling watches online since 1999! All new/unworn watches sold by Prestige Time, LLC are guaranteed to be 100% genuine, unworn, in the original box and with the original serial numbers intact. View our detailed return and warranty policies. Your satisfaction is guaranteed.

This watch is covered by the Prestige Time 2 Year Warranty from the date of sale.

  • Manufacturing defects
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Prestige Time specializes in the sale of authentic watches at discounted prices. We have been selling watches online since 1999! All new/unworn watches sold by Prestige Time, LLC are guaranteed to be 100% genuine, unworn, in the original box and with the original serial numbers intact. View our detailed return and warranty policies. Your satisfaction is guaranteed.

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The history of Breguet's legendary Type XX aviation chronograph

Made originally for the French air force in the 1950s, the Type 20 has been given a charismatic makeover, and had its movement revealed for the first time.

Should you have an interest in historic military pilot&rsquos watches, 2016 is your year. In January IWC released its latest update to the fabled Mark 11, which it originally made for the RAF in the late 1940s and &lsquo50s, and which the air force used for several decades. Then in March we discovered that, coincidentally, Breguet was adding another chapter in the story of the other great military flying watch of that era, the Type 20 fly-back chronograph, which it produced for the French Air Force.

Well, perhaps not quite a chapter &ndash the new watch is a variant of the already-existing Type XXI (ref 3810), the model that includes a date and day/night display though it does gain a new reference number, 3817. Cased in steel, it adds a smidge of new colour and character, some minor dial modifications and becomes, quite importantly, the first Breguet pilot&rsquos chrono in which the movement is visible through a sapphire case-back.

However, the 3817 is a bit more than the sum of those parts, I think for it is, frankly, the sexiest Breguet pilot&rsquos chrono there has yet been. It&rsquos the confident, good-looking dandy of the range, with a slate-grey dial, plump numerals in a creamy &ldquoaged&rdquo lume, and an engraved gold rotor swinging about over its movement. From one of Switzerland&rsquos most buttoned-up brands, it is a watch that runs the risk of being, well&hellip cool. How about that.

The range deserves to have a watch as winning and downright commercial as this. For although pilot&rsquos watches can seem like an uneasy sideline from a brand as rarefied as Breguet, in the canon of great military watches the Type 20 is right up there. Plenty of brands scratch around for a sniff of a genuine story on which to build some military &lsquoDNA&rsquo, but Breguet genuinely furnished the wrists of many French airmen, with one of the finest aviation chronographs of them all.

Of course, it wasn&rsquot just Breguet, which was one of several producers of the military Type 20 and actually nailing the Type 20 down to a definitive model is impossible, so many were the variations (four differing models featured in the Phillips auction of 88 chronographs earlier this year).

"Breguet didn't in fact make the original Breguet Type 20s: Mathey-Tissot did"

It&rsquos all too tempting to see a contrast of national character between the RAF&rsquos sternly understated, indestructible Mark 11 and the free-flowing, wind-in-the-hair beauty of France&rsquos perfect aviation chronograph in truth, they served different navigational purposes (astronavigation for the Brits, dead reckoning for the French). Nevertheless, the essential ingredients of the Type 20 add up to something unmistakably charismatic: a black chronograph dial lit up by thickly-lumed numerals and prominent hands, with a notched, numbered bezel that rotates both ways to aid calculations.

The first Type 20s appeared in 1954. Just as the British Ministry of Defence invited tenders to make its Mark 11, so the French Ministry of Defence looked to Swiss companies to build a watch that would eventually be supplied variously to the Armée de l&rsquoAir, to the Aéronavale (the navy air force) and to the military aviation test facility, the Centre d&rsquoEssais en Vol at Brétigny-sur-Orge (stamped C.E.V. on the back, these are understandably rare).

As with the Mark 11, the name &ldquoType 20&rdquo was a simple military designation (according to online researcher Don Indiano, other &ldquotypes&rdquo included Type 11 and Type 12, both aircraft dashboard chronographs rather than wristwatches) to this designation was attached a list of specifications relating to water resistance, power reserve (35 hours), diameter (38mm), dial (black, with 3 and 9 o&rsquoclock registers), and the chronograph to have the flyback function.

That meant the running chronograph could be reset instantly to zero, and timing restarted, at one push of a button and without first being stopped. Patented by Longines in 1936, the flyback chronograph enabled accurate timings to be made in series, without being hampered by stopping and resetting. In &lsquodead reckoning&rsquo navigation, where the accurate timing of steps in a journey was combined with speed and direction to discern a position, this was essential.

Besides Breguet, watchmakers Auricoste, Dodane and Vixa all took up the challenge, Dodane supplying the most, at over 5,000 watches. A point worth noting: given that Breguet today owns the old movement maker Lemania, one might assume a historic connection too. Au contraire: only Auricoste&rsquos Type 20s were supplied with Lemania movements, while Breguet&rsquos contained Valjoux calibers. Oh, and Breguet didn&rsquot actually make the Breguet Type 20s. Mathey-Tissot did.

Breguet, at that point, was more a brand than a watchmaker: watches were produced and sold under the Breguet name, but it did not make them. The Breguet name was then much more prominently attached to a French aircraft manufacturer, itself set up by a fourth generation descendant of Abraham Louis Breguet himself. Whether this had any influence on Breguet being part of the watch procurement is unclear, but there was no formal connection. The Breguet family had sold the watch business to Edward Brown, the English former head of the Breguet workshop, in 1870 his family would steward the name until 1970 when it was sold to the jeweller Chaumet, under whom it produced a handful of second-generation Type 20s for civilian aviators.

It was in the mid-1990s that Breguet, once again under new owners, revived its revered chronograph, now as a luxury wristwatch that drew on its military heritage. Unable to use the old name, like IWC it simply switched the number for Roman numerals: the Type XX as luxury chronograph was born.

It&rsquos remarkable to think that the basic modern Type XX, just 39mm across with a polished steel bezel and Lemania-based flyback chrono movement, has been in production for 21 years &ndash a carry-over from the pre-Swatch Group days, with a handful of variations having come and gone.

In 2004 the Type XXI was introduced, a more complex take on the theme, incorporating a 24-hour day/night indicator at the 3 o&rsquoclock sub-dial, a date overlaying the 12-hour chronograph totaliser, and high-tec silicon escapement. With the sub-dials occupied (running seconds is at 9 o&rsquoclock), it bears an unusual quirk: the XXI has two chronograph hands coming from the centre, one for the seconds as normal, and one for the minutes. It gives the watch a busy and unusual look, particularly when the chronograph is running.

In recent years there&rsquos been the further addition of the highest spec member of the family, the Type XXII, to please the serious tech-heads among the Breguet collecting community with a stupendously fast 10 Hz escapement frequency.

The new watch, however, adds to the XXI blueprint a kind of groovy, handsome charm that feels very much of the moment. The numerals have been enlarged, and the tea-coloured lume bulges off the dial. That lume, against the slate grey dial, gives the watch the flavour of history and age, without the ersatz pretence of deliberately aged patina found on certain vintage-style new watches.

Turn the 3817 over and you find, for the first time, the Cal 584 Q/2 movement glinting back at you, and it&rsquos something of an esoteric oddity: a Lemania workhorse from the early 1970s, now made with all of Breguet&rsquos modern spit and finish, plus its 21st century silicon tech but perhaps not the kind of refined, column-wheel/vertical clutch wonder demanded of modern manufactures. That only adds to its charm in my book, and it&rsquos pleasing finally to have it on show.

For those of a more purist persuasion, the 39mm Type XX surely remains the pick, and is indeed a persuasive entry point to Breguet but for those who love design, style and finish, as well as a sense of history, the new Type XXI leaps immediately to the front of the pack &ndash not just of Breguet pilot chronographs, but arguably of the whole genre.


Christina, Queen of Sweden

Perhaps one of the most intelligent and most vivacious women from the 17th century, Christina was named to Sweden’s throne at the young age of six.⁶ This occurred after her father, King Gustav II Adolph, had passed away.

Queen Christina didn’t begin ruling her kingdom until reaching the age of 18. Since she refused to marry, she abdicated the throne when she was 27. When the populace became unhappy for not having a king and his heirs, Christina chose to leave the country.

She traveled to Rome to enjoy the companionship of Pope Alexander VII, among others. In secrecy, Christina converted to Roman Catholicism, which many scholars believe played a key role in her abdication.

After an unsuccessful attempt to seize the throne of Poland, Christina finally settled down to a leisurely life and patronage of the arts. The Pope went on to describe her as “a queen without a realm, a Christian without faith, and a woman without shame.”


Watch the video: Как обманывают покупателей дорогих часов Breguet (August 2022).