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Russia's history extends back over 1,000 years with the establishment by Vikings of a territory they named Rus. The Viking presence diminished through gradual absorption by the native Slavic peoples and by 988, the prince of Kiev had converted to eastern Orthodox Christianity (based in Constantinople). Several hundred years later, the Mongols swept over Russia, remaining through the 14th century. A new ruler named Ivan the Great, brought Moscow to the fore and developed an empire based on his marriage to a Byzantine princess. It was Ivan's grandson, Ivan IV (the Terrible) who took the title Tzar (from the Latin Caesar) and expanded Moscow's realm. The expansion only continued over the next several hundred years and by the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great had made great strides towards transforming Russia into a true power. He devised a new capital called St. Petersburg, which became a glittering European center. But it was Catherine the Great, at the beginning of the 18th century, who entered into treaties and alliance with Prussia and Austria that solidified Russia's position as a true power in Europe. Alexander I, part of the group that successfully defeated Napoleon, held the title not only of Tzar, but grand duke of Finland and king of Poland. The 19th century saw Russia begin to industrialize with development extending to the far reaches of the tzar's realm. In 1917, the tzarist regime fell to revolution led by socialists who intended to create a republican government. This first revolution failed and was supplanted by Bolshevik forces later that year, with Vladimir Lenin as chairman. Communism helped develop the country but it brought with it some of the most repressive governments ever seen. It is unknown how many people died as a direct result of Communist control in Russia but the numbers are doubtless in the double-digit millions, especially those eliminated by Soviet dictator Josef Stalin. Along with some not insignificant successes -- modernization, becoming one of the true superpowers on the planet, the space race, athletics -- the 20th century for Russia and its people was marked by brutal wars (at least 20,000,000 citizens died during World War II alone), disastrous participation in Afghanistan's civil war that was compared to the US quagmire in Vietnam, and, for most of the population of the USSR, economic deprivation. Communism fell in 1992, following the collapse of communist governments throughout eastern Europe. Russia continues to struggle with democracy but seems unlikely to ever return to communism.
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Decembrist, Russian Dekabrist, any of the Russian revolutionaries who led an unsuccessful uprising on Dec. 14 (Dec. 26, New Style), 1825, and through their martyrdom provided a source of inspiration to succeeding generations of Russian dissidents. The Decembrists were primarily members of the upper classes who had military backgrounds some had participated in the Russian occupation of France after the Napoleonic Wars or served elsewhere in western Europe a few had been Freemasons, and some were members of the secret patriotic (and, later, revolutionary) societies in Russia—the Union of Salvation (1816), the Union of Welfare (1818), the Northern Society (1821), and the Southern Society (1821).
The Northern Society, taking advantage of the brief but confusing interregnum following the death of Tsar Alexander I, staged an uprising, convincing some of the troops in St. Petersburg to refuse to take a loyalty oath to Nicholas I and to demand instead the accession of his brother Constantine. The rebellion, however, was poorly organized and easily suppressed Colonel Prince Sergey Trubetskoy, who was to be the provisional dictator, fled immediately.
Another insurrection by the Chernigov regiment in the south was also quickly defeated. An extensive investigation in which Nicholas personally participated ensued it resulted in the trial of 289 Decembrists, the execution of 5 of them (Pavel Pestel, Sergey Muravyov-Apostol, Pyotr Kakhovsky, Mikhail Bestuzhev-Ryumin, and Kondraty Ryleyev), the imprisonment of 31, and the banishment of the rest to Siberia.
5. Early Russian Civilization
At the beginning of the Eighth Century the resettlement of Slavonic tribes began in the upper basins of the Dnieper, Western Dvina, and Upper Volga Rivers. Towards the end of the century the ancient state of the Slavs faced with the north expansion of the Khazar Khanate and the imposition of tribute on the Slavic tribes of Polyants, Severian, Vyatichi, and Radimichi. Unlike the countries conquered by the Mongols in Central Asia, the Caspian and the Northern Black Sea coast, which had favorable natural conditions for extensive nomadic herding and became the territory of the Mongolian state, Russia had generally maintained its own independent statehood throughout the period. The dependence of Russia from the khans of the Golden Horde was expressed in the heavy tribute which the Russian people were forced to give the invaders.
The Russo-Japanese War was a military conflict fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan from 1904 to 1905. Much of the fighting took place in what is now northeastern China. The Russo-Japanese War was also a naval conflict, with ships exchanging fire in the . read more
The KGB was the primary security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its collapse in 1991. The KGB served a multi-faceted role outside of and within the Soviet Union, working as both an intelligence agency and a force of “secret police.” It was also tasked with some of . read more
The History of Russian Involvement in America's Race Wars
From propaganda posters to Facebook ads, 80-plus years of Russian meddling.
According to a spate of recent reports, accounts tied to the St. Petersburg-based Internet Research Agency—a Russian “troll factory”— used social media and Google during the 2016 electoral campaign to deepen political and racial tensions in the United States. The trolls, according to an interview with the Russian TV network TV Rain, were directed to focus their tweets and comments on socially divisive issues, like guns. But another consistent theme has been Russian trolls focusing on issues of race. Some of the Russian ads placed on Facebook apparently targeted Ferguson and Baltimore, which were rocked by protests after police killings of unarmed black men another showed a black woman firing a rifle. Other ads played on fears of illegal immigrants and Muslims, and groups like Black Lives Matter.
Except for the technology used, however, these tactics are not exactly new. They are natural outgrowths of a central component of covert influence campaigns, like the one Russia launched against the United States during the 2016 election: make discord louder divide and conquer. “Covert influence campaigns don’t create divisions on the ground, they amplify divisions on the ground,” says Michael Hayden, who ran the NSA under Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush and then became CIA director. During the Cold War, the Kremlin similarly sought to plant fake news and foment discontent, but was limited by the low-tech methods available at the time. “Before, the Soviets would plant information in Indian papers and hope it would get picked up by our papers,” says John Sipher, who ran the CIA’s Russia desk during George W. Bush’s first term. The Soviets planted misinformation about the AIDS epidemic as a Pentagon creation, according to Sipher, as well as the very concept of a nuclear winter. “Now, because of the technology, you can jump right in,” Sipher says.
Soviet propaganda poster by Dmitri Moor, 1932
Neither is playing on racial tensions inside the United States a new Russian tactic. In fact, it predates even the Cold War. In 1932, for instance, Dmitri Moor, the Soviet Union’s most famous propaganda poster artist, created a poster that cried, “Freedom to the prisoners of Scottsboro!” It was a reference to the Scottsboro Boys, nine black teenagers who were falsely accused of raping two white women in Alabama, and then repeatedly—wrongly—convicted by all-white Southern juries. The case became a symbol of the injustices of the Jim Crow South, and the young Soviet state milked it for all the propagandistic value it could.
It was part of a plan put in place in 1928 by the Comintern—the Communist International, whose mission was to spread the communist revolution around the world. The plan initially called for recruiting Southern blacks and pushing for “self-determination in the Black Belt.” By 1930, the Comintern had escalated the aims of its covert mission, and decided to work toward establishing a separate black state in the South, which would provide it with a beachhead for spreading the revolution to North America.
The Soviets also exploited the oppression of Southern blacks for their own economic benefit. It was the height of the Great Depression, and the Soviet Union was positioning itself not only as a workers’ utopia, but as a racial utopia as well, one where ethnic, national, and religious divisions didn’t exist. In addition to luring thousands of white American workers, it brought over African-American workers and sharecroppers with the promise of the freedom to work and live unburdened by the violent restrictions of Jim Crow. In return, they would help the Soviets build their fledgling cotton industry in Central Asia. Several hundred answered the call, and though many eventually went back—or died in the Gulag—some of their descendants remain in Russia. One of Russia’s best-known television hosts, for instance, is Yelena Khanga, the granddaughter of Oliver Golden, an agronomist from Tuskeegee University who moved with his communist Jewish-American wife to Uzbekistan to develop the cotton industry there.
The beginning of the Cold War coincided with the beginning of the civil rights movement, and the two became intertwined—both in how the Soviets used the racial strife, and how the Cold War propelled the cause of civil rights forward. “Early on in the Cold War, there was a recognition that the U.S. couldn’t lead the world if it was seen as repressing people of color,” says Mary Dudziak, a legal historian at Emory, whose book Cold War Civil Rights is the seminal work on the topic. When, in September 1957, the Arkansas governor Orval Faubus deployed the National Guard to keep nine black students from integrating the Central High School in Little Rock, the standoff was covered by newspapers around the world, many of which noted the discrepancy between the values America expressed and hoped to spread around the world, and how it implemented them at home.
The Soviets, again, took full advantage of the opportunity. Komsomolskaya Pravda, the newspaper of the communist youth organization in the USSR, ran a sensational story, complete with photographs, about the conflict under the headline, “Troops Advance Against Children!” Izvestia, the second main Soviet daily, also extensively covered the Little Rock crisis, noting at one point that “right now, behind the facade of the so-called ‘American democracy,’ a tragedy is unfolding which cannot but arouse ire and indignation in the heart of every honest man.” The story went on:
The patrons of Governor Faubus . who dream of nooses and dynamite for persons with different-colored skins, advocates of hooliganism who throw rocks at defenseless Negro children—these gentlemen have the audacity to talk about “democracy” and speak as supporters of “freedom.” In fact it is impossible to imagine a greater insult to democracy and freedom than an American diplomat's speech from the tribunal of the U.S. General Assembly, a speech in which Washington was pictured as the “champion” of the rights of the Hungarian people.
The point then, as it was in 2016, was to discredit the American system, to keep the Soviets (and, later, Russians) loyal to their own system instead of hungering for Western-style democracy. But it was also used in Soviet propaganda around the world for a similar purpose. “This is a principal Soviet propaganda theme,” says Dudziak of the Soviet messaging at the time. “What’s described as communist propaganda that circulated in India overplays the story sometimes but also very maudlin stories about things that actually happened. Sometimes, in Pravda, all they needed to do was to reprint something that appeared in Time Magazine. Just the facts would themselves inflame international opinion. On top of that, the Soviets would push the envelope.”
This came at a critical time for time for the United States. After World War II, the U.S. was a new global power locked in an ideological struggle with the Soviet Union. As the United States tried to convince countries to join its sphere by taking up democracy and liberal values, the U.S. government was competing with the Soviets in parts of the world where images of white cops turning fire hoses and attack dogs on black protesters did not sit well—especially considering that this was coinciding with the wave African countries declaring independence from white colonial rulers. “Here at the United Nations I can see clearly the harm that the riots in Little Rock are doing to our foreign relations,” Henry Cabot Lodge, then the U.S. ambassador to the UN, wrote to President Eisenhower in 1957. “More than two-thirds of the world is non-white and the reactions of the representatives of these people is easy to see. I suspect that we lost several votes on the Chinese communist item because of Little Rock.”
“The Russian objective then was to disrupt U.S. international relations and undermine U.S. power in the world, and undermine the appeal of U.S. democracy to other countries,” says Dudziak, and Lodge was reflecting a central concern at the State Department at the time: The Soviet propaganda was working. American diplomats were reporting back both their chagrin and the difficulty of preaching democracy when images of the violence around the civil rights movement were reported all over the world, and amplified by Soviet or communist propaganda. On a trip to Latin America, then-Vice President Richard Nixon and his wife were met with protestors chanting, “Little Rock! Little Rock!” Secretary of State John Foster Dulles complained that “this situation was ruining our foreign policy. The effect of this in Asia and Africa will be worse for us than Hungary was for the Russians.” Ultimately, he prevailed on Eisenhower to insert a passage into his national address on Little Rock that directly addressed the discrepancy that Soviet propaganda was highlighting—and spinning as American hypocrisy. Whenever the Soviet Union was criticized for its human rights abuses, the rebuttal became, “And you lynch Negroes.”
Moscow never abandoned these tactics, which became known as “whataboutism,” even after the Soviet Union collapsed. Russian propaganda outlets like Russia Today—now known as RT—have always focused on domestic strife in the United States, be it homelessness or Occupy Wall Street or the Ferguson protests. The Facebook ads focusing on divisive issues like Black Lives Matter are just another page from the old Soviet handbook. The difference this time is that the Russians got better at penetrating the American discussions on these fraught subjects. They became a more effective bellows, amplifying the fire Americans built.
The good news, though, is that America can do things to disarm the propaganda. In the 1950s and 60s, for example, this was one of the reasons that American presidents pushed through various civil rights victories, culminating in the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act. This time, Americans can stop blaming the Russians and look at ourselves for what we do to fan the flames—to a far greater extent than the Russians ever could or do. “If there’s anyone to blame, it’s us,” says Sipher. “If we accept the stoking, it’s our fault.”
5 MEALTIME CUSTOMS
Russians eat four meals a day, starting with zavtrak or "morning coffee." Lunch, or obyed , is a small two-dish meal lasting from 12 noon until 1 p.m. Usually kasha, or baked buckwheat, is served at lunch. Dinner, or uzhin , is the most elaborate meal beginning at 6 p.m. and typically featuring four courses. The first course is zakuski or "little bite." Zakuski may feature a few simple appetizers (such as bread and cheese or herbed butter) to twenty or more elaborate creations requiring hours of preparation.
Borscht (Beet Soup)
- 3 cans (14 ounce) beef broth
- 2 medium beets
- 1 carrot
- 1 onion
- 3 potatoes
- ¼ head of cabbage
- 1 Tablespoon tomato paste
- ½ green pepper
- ½ fresh parsley
- 1 teaspoon lemon juice
- 2 cloves garlic, chopped
- Vegetable or olive oil
- Sour cream as garnish
- Sugar, to taste
- Prepare onions and carrots by chopping them.
- Pour a little vegetable oil into a skillet and add the carrots and onions. Cook until softened, and set aside.
- Peel the beets and chop or slice both into small bite-sized pieces.
- Remove the seeds from the green pepper and chop.
- Put the chopped beets and green pepper into a small saucepan and add about ½ cup of broth and the tomato paste. Cover the pot and simmer the vegetables for about 30 minutes until the beets are tender.
- While the beets and peppers are cooking, pour the remaining broth into a large saucepan and heat it almost to boiling.
- Chop the cabbage and add it to the broth.
- Peel the potatoes, cut them into bite-size pieces and add to broth.
- Add cooked onions and carrots to broth. Simmer the soup for about 20 minutes.
- When the beets are tender, add them to the broth. Add lemon juice, salt, sugar, parsley, and garlic cloves.
- Simmer 10 more minutes, and serve hot, with a dollop of sour cream in each bowl.
Sharlotka (Apple Cake)
- Preheat oven to 350ଏ.
- Combine flour, sugar, and eggs, beating well to completely dissolve the sugar.
- Wash the apples, cut them into quarters, and cut away the core and seeds.
- Cut the apples into thin slices.
- Grease a round cake pan and dust it lightly with flour or plain, unseasoned white bread crumbs to prevent the cake from sticking.
- Arrange all apple slices on the bottom of the pan.
- Pour the batter mixture over the apples, spreading it gently with a rubber spatula.
- Bake for 25 minutes until a toothpick, inserted into the center of the cake, comes out dry and the cake is beginning to pull away from the edges of the pan.
- Cool 10 minutes on a wire rack. Run a knife around the edges of the pan, and place a serving plate over the pan. Invert the pan (turn the pan upside-down) onto the serving plate. May be served warm or at room temperature.
Klyukva S Sakharom (Frosted Cranberries)
- 1 pound bag of fresh cranberries
- 1 egg white
- 1½ cups sugar
- 2-foot long piece of wax paper
- Preheat the oven to 150ଏ (lowest setting possible).
- Beat the egg white with an electric mixer or wire whisk until foamy but not stiff.
- Rinse the cranberries in a colander, discarding any shriveled or spoiled berries.
- Pour the cranberries into the egg white, stirring gently until the berries are all completely coated.
- Measure the sugar into another large bowl. Add the cranberries, and toss until the berries are completely covered with sugar.
- Spread the cranberries on a shallow baking pan, such as a cookie sheet, with edges.
- Bake for about 12 minutes until the sugar has melted.
- Spread a 2-foot long piece of wax paper out on the counter or table.
- Spread the cranberries out on the paper, separating them, to dry.
- Leave them undisturbed overnight. The frosted cranberries will keep in an airtight container or plastic bag for 2 weeks.
Historically, when guests first arrived at a Russian home, the hostess welcomed them with a loaf of bread and a small amount of salt. The guest was expected to take a piece of the bread, dip it in the salt, and eat it. This explains the Russian word for hospitality, khlebosol'stvo ( khleb ȫread" and sol "salt"). The hostess sits at the head of the table with the most respected guest at her right. Her husband sits where he wants to sit.
Semechki (Toasted Sunflower Seeds)
- 1 cup sunflower seeds in the hull
- 2 Tablespoons butter
- Salt, to taste (optional)
- Preheat oven to 325ଏ.
- Melt the butter in a bowl in the microwave or in a skillet over low heat on the stove.
- Toss the seeds in the butter, coating them well.
- Spread the seed on a cookie sheet.
- Bake for 15 to 20 minutes, until just golden. Sprinkle with salt. (Seeds may be shelled first, and then sprinkled with salt if preferred.)
Chai Po-Russki (Tea, Russian-Style)
Chai Po-Russki (tea) is usually served with a variety of cakes and candies.
- 1 teaspoon loose black tea per person, plus 1 teaspoon ȯor the pot"
- 1 cup water per person
- 1 whole cardamom pod or ½ teaspoon cardamom
- 1 lemon, sliced
- Measure tea into a saucepan. Add water and cardamom and bring to a boil.
- Remove from heat and allow to steep for 2 minutes. Pour tea through a strainer into cups.
- Add slices of lemon or cream to taste. (Do not use lemon and cream together, as the lemon will curdle the cream.)
A meal might consist of borscht (beet soup) with bread and pickles, or could be more elaborate. The soup must be served very hot. All dishes are served at the table from large serving dishes. It is proper for the hostess to encourage her guests to eat more than they really want to eat.
Lining many city streets are vending machines selling gazirovannaya voda (sparkling water), not in cans or bottles, but dispensed into a glass. The machine includes a scrubbing brush with cold water for the customer to use to clean the glass before using it. Also readily available are sunflower seeds sold by vendors at open stalls from large burlap sacks. Many Russians snack on sunflower seeds daily.
Kirsaova, R. M. "Kostium v russkoi khudozhestvennoi kul'ture 18— pervoi poloviny 20 vv. (Opyt entsiklopedii)" [Dress in Russian Artistic Culture from the Eighteenth Century to the First Half of the Twentieth Century (An Attempt at an Encyclopedic Account)]. Moscow: The Large Russian Encyclopedia, 1995.
——. "Obraz 'krasivogo cheloveka' v russkoi literature 1918–1930-kh godov" [The Image of the "Beautiful Human Being" in Russian Literature from 1918 to 1930]. In Znakomyi neznakomets. Sotsialisticheskii realism kak istorikokul'turnaia problema [The Familiar Unfamiliar One. Socialist Realism as a Historical-Cultural Problem]. Moscow: Institute of Slavic Studies and Balkanology, 1995.
——. Russkii kostium i byt XVII–XIX vekov [Russian Dress and Everyday Life in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries]. Moscow: Slovo, 2002.
Lebina, N. B. Povsednevnaia zhizn' sovetskogo goroda. 1920/1930 gody [The Everyday Life of the Soviet City in the 1920s/1930s]. St. Petersburg: Kikimora, 1999.
Molotova, L. N and N. N. Sosnina. Russkii narodnyi kostium. Iz sobraniia Gosudarstvennogo muzeia etnografii narodov SSSR [Russian National Dress. From the Collection of the State Museum of the Ethnography of the Peoples of the USSR]. Leningrad: Khudozhnik RSFSR, 1984.
Olenin, A. N. Opyt ob odezhde, oruzhii, nravakh, obychaiakh i stepeni prosveshcheniia slavian ot vremeni Traiana i russkikh do nashestviia tatar [Essay on the Dress, Weapons, Mores, Customs, and Degree of Education of the Slavs from the Time of Trajan and the Russians to the Tatar Invasion]. St. Petersburg: Glazunov's Press, 1832.
Prokhorov, V. A. Materialy po istorii russkikh odezhd i obstanovski zhizni narodnoi, izdavaemye V. Prokhorovym [Materials on the History of Russian Dress and the Circumstances of the Peoples' Life, Published by V. Prokhorov]. St. Petersburg: V. Prokhorov, Issues 1-7, 1871–1884.
Sosnina, N. and I. Shangina, ed. Russkii traditsionnyi kostium. Illiustrirovannaia entsiklopediia [Russian Traditional Dress. Illustrated Encyclopedia]. St. Petersburg: Iskusstvo-SPB, 1998.
Strizhenova, T. K. Iz istorii sovetskogo kostiuma [From the History of Soviet Dress]. Moscow: Sovetskii khudozhnik, 1972.
Tereshchenko, A. V. Byt russkogo naroda [The Everyday Life of the Russian People]. St. Petersburg: The Press of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 1848. Reprint, Moscow: Russkaia kniga, 1997.
Zabreva, A. E. Istoriia kostiuma. Bibliograficheskii ukazatel' knig i statei na russkom iazyke 1710–2001 [History of Dress. Bibliographic Index of Books and Articles in Russian, 1710–2001]. St. Petersburg: Professiia, 2002.
Catherine on the throne
Nearly forty years passed before a comparably ambitious and ruthless ruler gained the Russian throne – Catherine II, often known as Catherine the Great. Born a German princess and married to Peter’s grandson, she became more Russian than the Russians, adopting the language and religion of her new home. Coming to power in a coup d’état against her husband in 1762, Catherine went on to become one the most powerful European monarchs, known as a great patron of the arts and literature.
St. Petersburg owes to her one of its most famous landmarks – the “Bronze Horseman”, a statue of Peter the Great on the banks of the Neva River. And many Russians refer to her daily without even knowing it: a popular rumour says the Russian slang word for money – “babki” (literally “old women”) – originated from Catherine’s portrait on the pre-Revolution 100-rouble banknote.
A popular expression meaning “hoax” has also come to us because of Catherine. The phrase “Potemkin villages” refers to fake settlements set up by order of Prince Grigory Potemkin to fool the Empress during her visit to the Crimea in 1787. After the Crimean military campaign, led by Potemkin, Catherine had come to inspect the newly-conquered lands, accompanied by courtiers and foreign ambassadors. To impress her and her party, Potemkin had elaborate fake settlements constructed along the desolated banks of the Dnieper River, with flocks of sheep driven every night to the next stop along the route. As Catherine sailed past, she saw lively colourful villages – in reality nothing more than theatrical sets. Modern historians still argue about the truth behind the story, but the tale is generally considered largely exaggerated. Still, “Potemkin villages” have come to mean an eye-wash intended to mask an embarrassing or potentially damaging situation.
The idea was revived in the USSR as the Soviet government attempted to fool foreign guests. The visitors, often already sympathetic to communism, were shown select thriving villages, factories, schools and stores, presented to them as if they were typical, rather than exceptional. Given strict limitations on the movement of foreigners in the USSR, seeing less perfect examples was out of the question.
From Catherine’s times the Russians particularly treasure the memory of Alexander Suvorov, one of the few great generals in history to never lose a battle. “Train hard, fight easy” – a saying coined by Suvorov – became a proverb. Suvorov led Russia’s first campaigns against Napoleon’s armies in Italy in 1799. His marvel of a strategic retreat through the Alps earned him the top rank of generalissimo. He became the fourth and last holder of the title in pre-revolutionary Russia, until Josef Stalin was proclaimed Generalissimo of the Soviet Union.
Napoleon is fleeing Russia
Encyclopedia Britannica Online
The Encyclopedia Britannica has some information on Russian history on its main Russia page, but is more important for its links and related articles. Britannica has links to many useful online sources and print publications. Its pages on Russo-Turkish wars and the various treaties Russia was involved in are helpful guides.
“Russia,” Encyclopedia Britannica Online, accessed November 27, 2012, URL.
Modern Map of the Black Sea
“Black Sea Map” Encyclopedia Britannica Online, accessed November 27, 2012. URL.
The Friesian website, a winner of the Britannica Internet Guide Award, contains a very large entry on Russian history and the Russian Navy. Specifically the header on Russian Warships contains very helpful information regarding Russia’s attempts to move its fleet in and out of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. The article contains interesting information regarding the fleet itself and some context for its actions. The website is poorly organized, however, and is unattractively designed. The bibliography contained provides several useful sources.
“Successors of Rome: Russia, 862-Present,” Friesian, accessed November 24, 2012, last modified 2012, URL.
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress provides a very in-depth page for Russian history, including relevant information for wars, treaties, and naval development. The articles organization is basic but easy to navigate, and the Library contains an encyclopedic set of articles on the various wars and periods where Russian naval interest was tangible.
“A Country Study: Russia,” Library of Congress, accessed November 24, 2012, last modified March 22, 2011, URL.
Rus Navy appears to be a site dedicated to the past and current Russian Navy. It’s articles appear to be very strongly nationally biased, but it does contain a large amount of information regarding early developments in the construction of Russia’s navy and a chronological set of articles detailing its exploits. This website is unreliable as a source of impartial information, but its articles have some merit in their statistics and dates.
“Peter the First,” and “Russian Sailing Fleet in the XIXth Century,” RusNavy, accessed November 26, 2012, URL.
The Wikipedia articles on the Russo-Turkish wars, as well as related articles on other Russian military conflicts and their resulting treaties and settlements provide an immense foundation of information. While some articles could use more citations, the information presented about specific treaties and dates of conflicts all matches up with other assorted sources. Wikipedia does not go to extreme depth, and cannot be relied upon for nuances of Russian development and politics, but for factual information it provides the most helpful format and content.
“History of the Russo-Turkish wars,” Wikimedia Foundation, accessed November 17, last modified November 13, 2012, URL.
“However much Russian diplomacy may have been acting on behalf of the Balkan Christians, the concern which Russia showed over their fate was purely indirect because it did not affect her vital interests. Not so the question of the Straits. The importance of these “keys” to the back door of Russia was a growing issue as the Russian seaboard on the Black Sea was acquiring an increasing importance as the main outlet for Russia’s agricultural, and, later, industrial production.”²
- Official name:-Russian Federation
- Capital:- Moscow
- Total area:- 17,098,242 square km
- Land area:- 16,377,742 square km
- Population:- 142,257,5199 ( by July 2017)
- Languages:-Russian, Tatar, Chechen and other
- Religions:- majority of Russians are atheist,Russian Orthodox(17% to 20%),Muslims(11% to 16%) and other christians(2% to 4%).
- Literacy Rate:- 99.7% as per 2015 EST.
Russia is by a wide margin the world's biggest nation. It possesses a lot of Eastern Europe and northern Asia. The nation's landscape is differing, with broad stands of timberland, various mountain ranges, and tremendous fields. On and beneath the outside of the land are broad stores of regular assets that furnish the country with huge potential riches. Russia positions 6th on the planet in the populace, trailing China, India, the United States, Indonesia, and Brazil. The populace is as changed as the landscape. Slavs (Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians) are the most various of the in excess of 100 European and Asiatic nationalities.
Russian culture has created in five stages as followed
Culture of Ancient Russia : — In the tenth century, Kievan Rus went under the impact of the Byzantine Empire. The approach of Christianity impacted the neighborhood individuals' lifestyle, and this was reflected in the improvement of engineering, customs, and writing. After the Mongol intrusion, the Byzantine culture started to lose ground and part of the heritage of the past period was lost until the end of time. The new authoritative framework depended on rules that contrasted from Western European ones.
Russian culture in the thirteenth to seventeenth hundreds of years: — This stage in the improvement of Russian culture is alluded to as the time of Muscovite Russia. The domain, which for a long time was divided, converged into a solitary state with its middle in Muscovy. During this period the Moscow Kremlin was assembled and the painting of places of worship with frescoes resuscitated. Painters again went to Byzantine culture and shaped a school of Russian symbol painting. One of the most well-known painters of frescoes and symbols in this period was Andrei Rublev.
Culture of Imperial Russia: — Peter the Great's changes opened Russia to Western European impacts. The Age of Enlightenment featured the estimation of people and the requirement for training and all-encompassing advancement. A vivacious discussion started between supporters of Slavic culture and aficionados of the Western way of life. Together they scanned for a harmony between the two societies and decided how Russia ought to create while keeping up its national character and customary qualities. During this period the establishments of the Russian artistic language were framed, and the incomparable Russian works of art were composed. With attention to saving history and teaching individuals, historical centers started to create.
Russian culture as a component of the Soviet Union: — Under the impact of Soviet power, Russian culture changed fundamentally. With the approach of the Bolsheviks, numerous inventive and logical figures of tsarist Russia emigrated to Europe. Restraint killed conspicuous individuals from scholarly people. Soviet power fearlessly disposed of the leftovers of the past, obliterating numerous relics of chapel life. Simultaneously, the Communists attempted to kill the absence of education, making instruction free and necessary for everybody. Another scholarly and innovative tip-top rose, abstract works of art of the Soviet period showed up, and theater, film, and different types of craftsmanship created.
Russian culture in present-day times : — After the breakdown of the Soviet Union, money related help for some, inquire about organizations and social foundations declined. Individuals moved into business zones and social imbalance expanded. The vacuum that emerged because of the emergence of the Communist framework was filled by Western qualities – specifically, independence. Numerous individuals went to religion, the Orthodox Church started to resuscitate, and new houses of worship were manufactured. TV and film have affected the brains of individuals and, as in different nations, electronic media are currently supplanting print media.